You can create themes in a Plugins SDK project or a Liferay Maven project. You can create either type of project from Liferay IDE/Developer Studio or from the command line. This tutorial focuses on creating themes in a Plugins SDK project, from Liferay IDE and from the command line.
To learn how to create Liferay Maven projects, see the tutorial Creating Liferay Maven plugins from IDE or the tutorial Creating Liferay Maven Plugins from the Command Line.
Creating the theme using Liferay IDE is easiest to learn first.
Creating a Theme Project from Liferay IDE
Follow these steps to create a theme project in the IDE:
Go to File → New → Liferay Project.
Fill in the Project name and Display name fields.
Select the Liferay Plugins SDK and Portal Runtime you’ve configured.
Select Theme for your Plugin type.
Select a theme parent. Your theme inherits the parent theme’s styling as a base from which to build your theme. In addition to the _styled theme, you can choose to inherit from the _unstyled theme, which contains no styling. There’s also the classic theme that has a smooth look and feel and works well.
Select your theme’s framework. You can select the Freemarker or Velocity template frameworks for your theme. Or you can select JSP as your theme’s framework.
You’ve just created a theme project in which to implement your new look and feel.
Creating a theme from the command line using Ant is simple too.
Creating a Theme Project from the Command Line
From your terminal window, navigate to your Plugins SDK’s
themes folder. To create a theme project, you must execute the create script. Here’s the format to follow in executing the script:
create.[sh|bat] [project-name] "[Theme Display Name]"
On Linux and Mac OS X, you’d enter a command similar to the one in this example:
./create.sh my-theme "My Theme"
On Windows, you’d enter a command similar to the one in this example:
create.bat my-theme "My Theme"
Whether you created your theme project from the Liferay IDE or from the command line, you end up with the same project structure. Your theme project is a blank slate on which you you can exercise your creative talents. The Plugins SDK automatically appends “-theme” to your project name. Right now your theme is empty. Custom themes are created by layering your customizations on top of one of Liferay’s built-in themes. In tutorials that follow, you’ll learn how to populate your theme with your very own stylish look and feel. For now, examine your theme project.
The structure of a theme separates different types of resources into folders. Here’s the full structure of a theme project:
_diffs/(subfolders not created by default)
- (many directories)
- (many directories)
_diffs folder that’s created inside the
docroot folder of your theme is important; this is where you place your theme’s code. The
_diffs folder must mirror the parent theme’s directory structure. Since you’ll only customize the parts of your theme that differ from the parent theme, place only the folders and files you’ll customize there.
The other folders inside
docroot are copied over from the parent theme in your Liferay bundle when you deploy your theme. Use these files as the basis for your modifications. For example, to customize the navigation markup, copy the
navigation.[vm|ftl] file from
docroot/templates/navigation.[vm|ftl] into the
docroot/_diffs/templates folder (you may have to create this folder first). You can then open this file from the
_diffs folder and customize it to your liking.
For custom styles, create a folder named
css inside your
_diffs folder and place a single file there called
custom.css. This is where you’ll define all your new styles. Because
custom.css is loaded last, styles defined here override any styles in the parent theme.
It’s a best practice to add your styles only to the
custom.css file. This keeps all of your changes in one place and makes future upgrades easier, because you won’t have to manually modify your templates to add support for new Liferay features.
Whenever you modify your theme, redeploy it. Wait a few seconds until the theme deploys, then refresh your browser to see your changes.
Congrats! Now you know how to create a theme project and are familiar with its structure.