In this tutorial, you’ll learn how to define an object relational map for your application so that it can persist data. The example code in this tutorial, as well as the example code in the other Service Builder and Services tutorials, comes from the Event Listing project, which you can find on Github.
The Event Listing project is an example portlet project that an organization can use to schedule social events. The event-listing-portlet project allows administrators to manage and list these events. The project defines two entities, or model types, to represent an organization’s events and the locations at which the events can take place. These entities are called events and locations. The event entity represents a social event that can be scheduled, while the location entity represents a location at which a social event can take place. Since an event must have a location, the event entity references a location entity as one of its attributes.
If you want to display entity data in a Liferay application, you’re free to create any kind of user interface that you can imagine. The following image shows a simple example. To learn how to create simple user interfaces for Liferay Service Builder applications, please see the Implementing a UI with Liferay Taglibs learning path.
As with any portlet project, the event-listing-portlet project’s Java sources reside in the
docroot/WEB-INF/src folder. Notice the
LocationListingPortlet.java files in the
com.liferay.docs.eventlisting package. These portlet classes extend Liferay’s
MVCPortlet class. They act as the controllers in the MVC pattern. These classes contain the business logic that invokes the Service Builder generated event and location services that you’ll learn how to create in this section. The application’s view layer is implemented in the JSPs in the
The first step in using Service Builder is to define your model classes and their attributes in a
service.xml file in your project’s
docroot/WEB-INF folder. In Service Builder terminology, your model classes (events and locations) are called entities. The requirements for the event and location entities are fairly simple. Events should have the following attributes:
Event Attributes (Example)
|Attribute||Attribute Type||Attribute Description|
| ||String||The name of the event|
| ||String||A description of the event|
| ||Date||The date and time the event takes place|
| ||long||An event takes place at a location and this location ID specifies the event’s location|
Locations should have the following attributes:
Location Attributes (Example)
|Attribute||Attribute Type||Attribute Description|
| ||String||The name of the location|
| ||String||A description of the location|
| ||String||The street address of the location|
| ||String||The city of the location|
| ||String||The state or province of the location|
| ||String||The country of the location|
Service Builder reads a single file called
service.xml that’s used for defining entities. Once you create the file, you can then define your entities. Liferay IDE makes it very easy to define entities in your application’s
service.xml file. To define a custom entity, follow these steps:
service.xmlfile in your project’s
docroot/WEB-INFfolder, if one does not already exist there.
Define global information for the service.
Define service entities.
Define the columns (attributes) for each service entity.
Define relationships between entities.
Define a default order for the entity instances to be retrieved from the database.
Define finder methods that retrieve objects from the database based on specified parameters.
Let’s examine these steps in detail, starting with creating a
To define a service for your portlet project, you must create a
service.xml file. The DTD (Document Type Declaration) file http://www.liferay.com/dtd/liferay-service-builder_6_2_0.dtd specifies the format and requirements of the XML to use. You can create your
service.xml file manually, following the DTD, or you can use Liferay IDE. Liferay IDE helps you build the
service.xml file piece-by-piece, taking the guesswork out of creating XML that adheres to the DTD.
If a default
service.xml file already exists in your
docroot/WEB-INF/src folder, check to see if it has an
<entity /> element named “Foo”. If it has the Foo entity, remove the entire
<entity name="Foo" ...> ... </entity> element. The Liferay IDE project wizard creates the Foo entity as an example. It has no practical use for you.
If you don’t already have a
service.xml file, it’s easy to create one using Liferay IDE. Simply select your
event-listing-portlet project in the Package Explorer and then select File → New → Liferay Service Builder. Liferay IDE creates a
service.xml file in your
docroot/WEB-INF/src folder and displays the file in Overview mode.
Liferay IDE also provides a Diagram mode and a Source mode to give you different perspectives of the service information in your
service.xml file. Diagram mode is helpful for creating and visualizing relationships between service entities. Source mode brings up the
service.xml file’s raw XML content in the editor. You can switch between these modes as you wish.
Next, you can start filling out the global information for your service.
Defining Global Service Information
A service’s global information applies to all of its entities, so it’s a good place to start. In Liferay IDE, select the Service Builder node in the upper left corner of the Overview mode of your
service.xml file. The main section of the view now shows the Service Builder form in which you can enter your service’s global information. The fields include the service’s package path, author, and namespace options. Here are the values used for the event-listing project’s service:
- Package path: com.liferay.docs.eventlisting
- Auto namespace tables: no
- Author: [your name]
- Namespace: Event
The package path specifies the package in which the service and persistence classes are generated. The package path defined above ensures that the service classes are generated in the
com.liferay.docs.eventlisting package under the
docroot/WEB-INF/service folder. The persistence classes are generated in a package of that name under the
docroot/WEB-INF/src folder. The complete file paths for the service and persistence classes are
docroot/WEB-INF/src/com/liferay/docs/eventlisting, respectively. Please refer to the Running Service Builder and Understanding the Generated Code tutorial for a description of the contents of these packages.
Service Builder uses the service namespace in naming the database tables it generates for the service. Enter Event as the namespace for your example service. Service Builder uses the namespace in the following SQL scripts it generates in your
Liferay Portal uses these scripts to create database tables for all the entities defined in the
service.xml file. Service Builder prepends the namespace to the database table names. Since the namespace value above is
Event, the names of the database tables created for the entities start with
Event_ as their prefix. The namespace for each Service Builder project must be unique. Separate plugins should use separate namespaces and should not use a namespace already used by Liferay (such as
Groups). Check the table names in Liferay’s database if you’re wondering which namespaces are already in use.
As the last piece of global information, enter your name as the service’s author in your
service.xml file. Service Builder adds
@author annotations with the specified name to all of the generated Java classes and interfaces. Save your
service.xml file to preserve the information you added. Next, you’ll add entities for your service’s events and locations.
Defining Service Entities
Entities are the heart and soul of a service. Entities represent the map between the model objects in Java and the fields and tables in your database. Once your entities are defined, Service Builder handles the mapping automatically, giving you a facility for taking Java objects and persisting them. For the Event Listing example, two entities were created–one for events and one for locations.
Here’s a summary of the information that was used for the Event entity:
- Name: Event
- Local service: yes
- Remote service: yes
And here’s what was used for the Location entity:
- Name: Location
- Local service: yes
- Remote service: yes
To create your entities using Liferay IDE, select the Entities node under the Service Builder node in the outline on the left side of the
service.xml editor in Overview mode. In the main part of the view, notice that the Entities table is empty. Create an entity by clicking on the Add Entity icon (a green plus sign) to the right of the table. Enter Event for your entity’s name and select both the Local Service and the Remote Service options. Create a second entity named Location and select the Local Service and the Remote Service options for it too.
An entity’s name is used to name the database table for persisting instances of the entity. The actual name of the database table is prefixed with the namespace; the Event Listing example creates one database table named
Event_Event and another named
Setting the local service attribute to
true instructs Service Builder to generate local interfaces for the entity’s services. The default value for local service is
false. Local services can only be invoked from the Liferay server on which they’re deployed. The Event Listing portlet will be deployed to your Liferay server. So the service will be local from your Liferay server’s point of view.
Setting the remote service attribute to
true instructs Service Builder to generate remote interfaces for the service. The default value for remote service is
true. You could build a fully-functional event listing application without generating remote services. In that case, you could set local service to
true and remote service to
false for both of your entities. If, however, you want to enable remote access to your application’s services, you should set both local service and remote service to
Now that you’ve seen how to create the Event and Location entities, you’ll learn how to describe their attributes using entity columns.
Defining the Columns (Attributes) for Each Service Entity
Each entity is described by its columns, which represent an entity’s attributes. These attributes map on the one side to fields in a table and on the other side to attributes of a Java object. To add attributes for the Event entity, you need to drill down to its columns in the Overview mode outline of the
service.xml file. From the outline, expand the Entities node and expand the new Event entity node. Then select the Columns node. Liferay IDE displays a table of the Event entity’s columns.
Service Builder creates a database field for each column you add to the
service.xml file. It maps a database field type appropriate to the Java type specified for each column, and it does this across all the databases Liferay supports. Once Service Builder runs, it generates a Hibernate configuration that handles the object-relational mapping. Service Builder automatically generates getter/setter methods in the model class for these attributes. The column’s Name specifies the name used in the getters and setters that are created for the entity’s Java field. The column’s Type indicates the Java type of this field for the entity. If a column’s Primary (i.e., primary key) attribute value is set to
true, then the column becomes part of the primary key for the entity. An entity’s primary key is a unique identifier for the entity. If only one column has Primary set to
true, then that column represents the entire primary key for the entity. This is the case in the Event Listing example. However, it’s possible to use multiple columns as the primary key for an entity. In this case, the combination of columns makes up a compound primary key for the entity.
Similar to the way you used the form table for adding entities, add attribute columns for each of your entities. Here are the attributes used for the event and location example entities:
Event attribute columns (Example)
Location attribute columns (Example)
Create each attribute by clicking on the add icon. Then fill in the name of the attribute, select its type, and specify whether it is a primary key for the entity. While your cursor is in a column’s Type field, an option icon appears. Click this icon to select the appropriate type for the column. Create a column for each attribute of your Event entity. Repeat the steps to create columns for each attribute of your Location entity.
In addition to columns for your entity’s primary key and attributes, it’s recommended to add columns for portal instance ID and site ID. They allow your portlet to support the multi-tenancy features of Liferay, so that each portal instance and each site in a portal instance can have independent sets of portlet data. To hold the site’s ID, add a column called
groupId of type
long. To hold the portal instance’s ID, add a column called
companyId of type
long. Add both of these columns to your Event and Location entities.
Portal and site scope columns
You’ll also want to know who owns each entity instance. To keep track of that, add a column called
userId of type
Lastly, add columns to help audit your entities. Add a column named
createDate of type
Date to note the date an entity instance was created. And add a column named
modifiedDate of type
Date to track the last time an entity instance was modified.
Great! Your entities are set with the columns that not only represent their attributes, but also support multi-tenancy and entity auditing. Next, you’ll specify the relationship between the Event entity and the Location entity.
Defining Relationships Between Service Entities
Often you’ll want to reference one type of entity in the context of another entity. That is, you’ll want to relate the entities. The Event Listing project demonstrates entity relationships.
As mentioned earlier, each event must have a location. Therefore, each Event entity must relate to a Location entity. Liferay IDE’s Diagram mode for
service.xml makes relating entities easy. First, select Diagram mode for the
service.xml file. Then select the Relationship option under Connections in the palette on the right side of the view. This relationship tool helps you draw relationships between entities in the diagram. Click the Event entity and move your cursor over the Location entity. Liferay IDE draws a dashed line from the Event entity to the cursor. Click the Location entity to complete drawing the relationship. Liferay IDE turns the dashed line into a solid line, with an arrow pointing to the Location entity. Save the
Congratulations! You’ve related two entities. Their relationship should show in Diagram mode and look similar to that of the figure below.
Switch to Source mode in the editor for your
service.xml file and note that Liferay IDE created a column element in the Event entity to hold the ID of the Location entity instance reference:
<column name="locationId" type="long"></column>
Now that your entity columns are in place, you can specify the default order in which the entity instances are retrieved from the database.
Defining Ordering of Service Entity Instances
Often, you want to retrieve multiple instances of a given entity and list them in a particular order. Liferay lets you specify the default order of the entities in your
Suppose you want to return Event entities in order by date, earliest to latest, and you want to return Location entities alphabetically by name. It’s easy to specify these default orderings using Liferay IDE. Switch back to Overview mode in the editor for your
service.xml file. Then select the Order node under the Event entity node in the outline on the left side of the view. The IDE displays a form for ordering the Event entity. Check the Specify ordering checkbox to show the form for specifying the ordering. Create an order column by clicking the add icon (a green plus sign) to the right of the table. Enter date for the column name to use in ordering the Event entity. Click the Browse icon to the right of the By field and choose the asc option. This orders the Event entity by ascending date. To specify ordering for Location entity instances, follow similar steps but specify name as the column and asc as the select by value.
The last thing to do is to define the finder methods for retrieving entity instances from the database.
Defining Service Entity Finder Methods
Finder methods retrieve entity objects from the database based on specified parameters. You’ll probably want to create at least one finder method for each entity you create in your services. Service Builder generates several methods based on each finder you create for an entity. It creates methods to fetch, find, remove, and count entity instances based on the finder’s parameters.
For the Event Listing project, it’s important to be able to find Event and Location entities per site. You can specify these finders using Liferay IDE’s Overview mode of
service.xml. Select the Finders node under the Event entity node in the outline on the left side of the screen. The IDE displays an empty Finders table in the main part of the view. Create a new finder by clicking the add icon (a green plus sign) to the right of the table. Name the finder GroupId and enter Collection as its return type. Use the Java camel-case naming convention when naming finders since the finder’s name is used to name the methods that Service Builder creates. The IDE creates a new GroupId node under the Finders node in the outline. Next, you’ll learn how to specify the finder column for this group ID node.
Under the new GroupId node, the IDE created a Finder Columns node. Select the Finder Columns node to specify the columns for your finder’s parameters. Create a new finder column by clicking the add icon (a green plus sign) and specifying groupId as the column’s name. Keep in mind that you can specify multiple parameters (columns) for a finder.
If you’re creating site-scoped entities (entities whose data should be unique to each site), you should follow the steps described above to create finders by
groupId for retrieving your entities. Remember to save your
service.xml file after editing it to preserve the finders you define.
When you run Service Builder, it generates finder-related methods (
countByGroupId) for the your entities in the
*PersistenceImpl classes. The first of these classes is the interface; the second is its implementation. The Event and Location entity’s finder methods are generated in the
-Persistence classes in the
/docroot/WEB-INF/service/com/liferay/docs/eventlisting/service/persistence folder and the
-PersistenceImpl classes in the
Now you know to configure Service Builder to create finder methods for your entity. Terrific! For your convenience, you can view the complete
service.xml content of the Event Listing project below. We’ve added some comments to highlight the service’s various elements. You can refer to the Event Listing project’s
service.xml file’s when you’re creating your own:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!DOCTYPE service-builder PUBLIC "-//Liferay//DTD Service Builder 6.2.0//EN" "http://www.liferay.com/dtd/liferay-service-builder_6_2_0.dtd"> <service-builder package-path="com.liferay.docs.eventlisting"> <author>Joe Bloggs</author> <namespace>Event</namespace> <entity name="Event" local-service="true" remote-service="true"> <!-- PK fields --> <column name="eventId" type="long" primary="true" /> <!-- Audit fields --> <column name="companyId" type="long" /> <column name="groupId" type="long" /> <column name="userId" type="long" /> <column name="createDate" type="Date" /> <column name="modifiedDate" type="Date" /> <!-- Other fields --> <column name="name" type="String" /> <column name="description" type="String" /> <column name="date" type="Date" /> <column name="locationId" type="long" /> <!-- Order --> <order by="asc"> <order-column name="date" /> </order> <!-- Finder methods --> <finder name="GroupId" return-type="Collection"> <finder-column name="groupId" /> </finder> </entity> <entity name="Location" local-service="true" remote-service="true"> <!-- PK fields --> <column name="locationId" type="long" primary="true" /> <!-- Audit fields --> <column name="companyId" type="long" /> <column name="groupId" type="long" /> <column name="userId" type="long" /> <column name="createDate" type="Date" /> <column name="modifiedDate" type="Date" /> <!-- Other fields --> <column name="name" type="String" /> <column name="description" type="String" /> <column name="streetAddress" type="String" /> <column name="city" type="String" /> <column name="stateOrProvince" type="String" /> <column name="country" type="String" /> <!-- Order --> <order by="asc"> <order-column name="name" /> </order> <!-- Finder methods --> <finder name="GroupId" return-type="Collection"> <finder-column name="groupId" /> </finder> </entity> </service-builder>
Remember that you can view the complete Event Listing portlet project on Github here: https://github.com/liferay/liferay-docs/tree/6.2.x/develop/tutorials/code/tutorials-sdk/portlets/event-listing-portlet.
Now that you’ve specified the service for the Event Listing example project, you’re ready to build the service by running Service Builder. To learn how to run Service Builder and to learn about the code that Service Builder generates,