Modularizing an Existing Portlet

An application with properly modularized plugins offers several benefits. You can release individually its plugins without releasing the entire application. External clients can consume services from particular plugins, without having to depend on an entire application. And by splitting up large amounts of code into concise modules, teams can more easily focus on particular areas of the application. These are just a few reasons to modularize application plugins.

In this tutorial, you’ll learn how to convert your traditional application into modules. Before getting started, it’s important to reiterate that the module structure shown in this tutorial is just one of many ways for structuring your application’s modules. It’s also important to remember that applications come in all different shapes and sizes. There may be special actions that some applications require. This tutorial provides the general process for converting to modules using Liferay’s module structure.

Here’s what’s involved:

  • Converting portlet classes and the UI
  • Converting Service Builder interfaces and implementations
  • Building and deploying modules

The instructions covered in this tutorial apply to both the commercial and open source versions of Liferay.

The first thing you’ll do is create your application’s web (client) module.

Converting Your Application’s Portlet Classes and UI

The first thing you’ll do is create your application’s parent directory and the directory structure for your application’s web client module. This module holds your application’s portlet classes and is responsible for its UI. Before you start creating a skeleton structure for your application’s modules, you should determine which modules will comprise this version of your application. If your application provides service and API classes (which is the case for all Liferay Service Builder applications), you should create separate modules for your service implementation and service API classes. This tutorial assumes the Maven project model, although any build tools or directory setup is permissible.

  1. Create your application’s parent folder. It is home for your application’s independent modules and configuration files. For example, if your application’s name is Tasks, then your parent folder could be tasks.

    If your application uses Liferay Service Builder, use the following Blade CLI command to generate the parent folder and service implementation and service API modules in it. If the parent folder already exists, it must be empty. This command names the parent folder after the APPLICATION_NAME:

    blade create -t service-builder -p [ROOT_PACKAGE] [APPLICATION_NAME]
    

    The *-service and *-api module folders are described later in this tutorial.

  2. Create the folder structure for your web client module. You can do this automatically by using Blade CLI. The portlet tutorials demonstrate creating all different kinds of portlets.

    Navigate to your parent directory (e.g., tasks) and run the following Blade CLI command to generate a generic web client module structure:

    blade create -t mvc-portlet -p [ROOT_PACKAGE] [APPLICATION_NAME]-web
    
  3. Replace the /src/main/java/[APPLICATION_NAME] folder with your root package. For instance, if your application’s root package name is com.liferay.tasks.web, your class’s directory should be /src/main/java/com/liferay/tasks/web. Also, remove the init.jsp and view.jsp files located in the src/main/resources/META-INF/resources folder. You’ll insert your traditional application’s Java code and JSPs, so the generated default code is not necessary.

  4. Verify that your current directory structure for your application’s *-web module matches the structure listed below:

    • tasks
      • tasks-web
        • src
          • main
            • java
              • [ROOT_PACKAGE]
            • resources
              • content
                • Language.properties
              • META-INF
                • resources
        • bnd.bnd
        • build.gradle

    The instructions in the rest of this sub-section only affect your application’s web client module.

  5. Open the bnd.bnd file. This is used to generate your module’s MANIFEST.MF file that is generated when you build your project. Edit your module’s bnd.bnd file to fit your application. For more information about configuring your module’s bnd.bnd, visit http://bnd.bndtools.org/. You can view the dictionary-web module’s bnd.bnd for a simple example below:

    Bundle-Name: Liferay Dictionary Web
    Bundle-SymbolicName: com.liferay.dictionary.web
    Bundle-Version: 1.0.6
    

    For a more advanced example, examine the journal-web module’s bnd.bnd:

    Bundle-Name: Liferay Journal Web
    Bundle-SymbolicName: com.liferay.journal.web
    Bundle-Version: 2.0.0
    Export-Package:\
        com.liferay.journal.web.asset,\
        com.liferay.journal.web.dynamic.data.mapping.util,\
        com.liferay.journal.web.social,\
        com.liferay.journal.web.util
    Liferay-JS-Config: /META-INF/resources/js/config.js
    Liferay-Releng-Module-Group-Description:
    Liferay-Releng-Module-Group-Title: Web Content
    Web-ContextPath: /journal-web
    
  6. Open the build.gradle file. This is used to specify all your module’s dependencies. The build.gradle file that was generated for you is pre-populated with content and default dependencies related to OSGi and Liferay Portal. In the dependencies {...} block, you need to add the web client module’s dependencies. To learn how to find and specify dependencies on Liferay API modules, refer to the reference document Finding Liferay API Modules. When deploying your module into the OSGi container, OSGi checks if the dependencies are available in the container. If the dependencies are not available in the container, your module will be unavailable. Therefore, your dependencies are not bundled with your module. Instead, they’re available from Liferay’s OSGi container.

  7. Copy your traditional application’s JSP files into the /src/main/resources/META-INF/resources directory. In most cases, all of your application’s JSP files should reside in the web client module.

  8. Your next task is to add your portlet classes, non-service classes, and non-implementation classes into your client module. Copy your portlet classes into their respective directories and ensure their package names within the class are specified correctly. Your client module can hold one class or many classes, depending on how large your application is. It’s a good practice to organize your classes into sub-packages of the main package, to more easily manage them. You’ll examine the journal-web module for an example of a client module holding many different Java classes:

    • journal-web
      • src/main/java/com/liferay/journal/web/
        • asset
          • [classes]
        • configuration
          • [classes]
        • dynamic/data/mapping/util
          • [classes]
        • internal
          • application/list
            • [classes]
          • custom/attributes
            • [classes]
          • dao/search
            • [classes]
        • social
          • [classes]
        • util
          • [classes]
  9. Now that you have the necessary classes in your client module, you need to edit these classes to be compliant with OSGi. First, you need to choose a component framework to work with. Using a component framework lets you easily harness the power of OSGi. Liferay Portal uses the Declarative Services component framework and recommends that Liferay developers use it too. This tutorial assumes that you’re using Declarative Services. You can, however, use any other OSGi component framework in Liferay Portal.

    Review your traditional application’s XML files and migrate the configuration and metadata information to the portlet class as properties. You can do this by adding the @Component annotation to your portlet class and adding the necessary properties to that annotation. The end result should look similar to the following example:

    @Component(
        immediate = true,
        property = {
            "com.liferay.portlet.display-category=category.sample",
            "com.liferay.portlet.icon=/icon.png",
            "javax.portlet.name=1",
            "javax.portlet.display-name=Tasks Portlet",
            "javax.portlet.security-role-ref=administrator,guest,power-user",
            "javax.portlet.init-param.clear-request-parameters=true",
            "javax.portlet.init-param.view-template=/view.jsp",
            "javax.portlet.expiration-cache=0",
            "javax.portlet.supports.mime-type=text/html",
            "javax.portlet.resource-bundle=content.Language",
            "javax.portlet.info.title=Tasks Portlet",
            "javax.portlet.info.short-title=Tasks",
            "javax.portlet.info.keywords=Tasks",
        },
        service = Portlet.class
    )
    public class TasksPortlet extends MVCPortlet {
    
  10. Convert all references of the portletId (e.g., 58_INSTANCE_4gtH) to the class name of the portlet, replacing all periods with underscores (e.g., com_liferay_web_proxy_portlet_WebProxyPortlet).

  11. If your traditional application has resource actions, you’ll need to migrate those into your client module. Create the /src/main/resources/resource-actions/default.xml file, and copy your resource actions there. Make sure to create the src/portlet.properties file and add the following property:

    resource.actions.configs=resource-actions/default.xml
    

    As an example, you can view the Directory application’s default.xml file.

  12. Add any language keys that your application uses to the src/main/resources/content/Language.properties file. You should only include the language keys that are unique to your application. Your application will use the default language keys in Liferay when it is deployed.

Awesome! You’ve created your application’s web client module and navigated through some of the most common tasks necessary to modularize your portlet classes and UI. There are certain parts of your application that may not be covered in this tutorial that you must account for. Liferay’s Developer Network provides developer tutorials divided into popular areas so you can easily find the correct way to transform your legacy code to use Liferay Portal’s updated best practices.

The table below serves as a quick reference guide. It summarizes the migration process for many of your application’s directories, packages, and files. This is a sample table for a fictitious tasks applications.

Plugin Package Module Package
tasks-portlet/docroot/WEB-INF/src/com.liferay.tasks.asset tasks-web/src/main/java/com.liferay.tasks.asset
tasks-portlet/docroot/WEB-INF/src/com.liferay.tasks.portlet tasks-web/src/main/java/com.liferay.tasks.portlet
tasks-portlet/docroot/WEB-INF/src/content tasks-web/src/main/resources/content
tasks-portlet/docroot/WEB-INF/src/resource-actions tasks-web/src/main/resources/resource-actions
tasks-portlet/docroot/WEB-INF/src/portlet.properties tasks-web/src/main/resources/portlet.properties
tasks-portlet/docroot/init.jsp tasks-web/src/main/resources/META-INF/resources/init.jsp
tasks-portlet/docroot/tasks tasks-web/src/main/resources/META-INF/resources/tasks
tasks-portlet/docroot/upcoming_tasks tasks-web/src/main/resources/META-INF/resources/upcoming_tasks

Many applications only have a web client module. Larger, more complex applications, such as Liferay Service Builder applications, require additional modules to hold their service API and service implementation logic. You’ll learn how to create these modules next.

Converting Your Application’s Service Builder API and Implementation

In this section, you’ll learn about converting a Liferay Portal 6 Service Builder application to a Liferay Portal CE 7.0 style application. In the previous section, you learned how to generate your implementation and API modules. If you haven’t yet run the service-builder Blade CLI command outlined in step 2 of the previous section, run it now. The API module holds your application’s Service Builder generated API and the implementation module holds your application’s Service Builder implementation.

Before you begin editing the API and implementation modules, you’ll need to configure your root project (e.g., tasks) to recognize the multiple modules residing there. A multi-module Gradle project must have a settings.gradle file in the root project for building purposes. Luckily, when you generated your Service Builder project’s modules using Blade CLI, the settings.gradle file was inserted and pre-configured for the api and service modules. You should add your web module into the Service Builder project’s generated parent folder and define it in the settings.gradle file too. You’ll configure your web module via Gradle settings later, but for now, go ahead and copy the module into the project generated by the service-builder template. For example, an example tasks project’s root folder would look like this:

  • tasks
    • gradle
    • tasks-api
    • tasks-service
    • tasks-web
    • build.gradle
    • gradlew
    • settings.gradle

Your root project directory should now be in good shape. Next, you’ll learn how to use Service Builder to generate your application’s service API and service implementation code.

  1. Copy your traditional application’s service.xml file and paste it into the implementation module’s root directory (e.g., tasks/tasks-service).

  2. Blade CLI generated a bnd.bnd file for your service implementation module. Make sure to edit this bnd.bnd file to fit your application. For an example of a service implementation module’s BND file, examine the export-import-service module’s BND below:

    Bundle-Name: Liferay Export Import Service
    Bundle-SymbolicName: com.liferay.exportimport.service
    Bundle-Version: 4.0.0
    Export-Package:\
        com.liferay.exportimport.content.processor.base,\
        com.liferay.exportimport.controller,\
        com.liferay.exportimport.data.handler.base,\
        com.liferay.exportimport.lar,\
        com.liferay.exportimport.lifecycle,\
        com.liferay.exportimport.messaging,\
        com.liferay.exportimport.portlet.preferences.processor.base,\
        com.liferay.exportimport.portlet.preferences.processor.capability,\
        com.liferay.exportimport.search,\
        com.liferay.exportimport.staged.model.repository.base,\
        com.liferay.exportimport.staging,\
        com.liferay.exportimport.xstream
    Liferay-Releng-Module-Group-Description:
    Liferay-Releng-Module-Group-Title: Data Management
    Liferay-Require-SchemaVersion: 1.0.0
    -includeresource: content=../../staging/staging-lang/src/main/resources/content
    
  3. Blade CLI also generated your service implementation module’s build.gradle file. In this file, Service Builder is already configured to generate code both in this module and in your service API module. When you run Service Builder, Java classes, interfaces, and related files are generated in your *api and *service modules. Open your service implementation module’s build.gradle file to view the default configuration.

    As you’ve learned already, you don’t have to accept the generated build files’ defaults. Blade CLI simply generated some standard OSGi and Liferay configurations.

    For example, Service Builder is already available for you by default. Blade CLI applies the Service Builder plugin automatically when a project contains the service.xml file. With the Service Builder plugin already available, you don’t have to worry about configuring it in your project.

  4. Another important part of your service implementation module’s build.gradle file is the buildService{...} block. This block configures how Service Builder runs for your project. The current configuration will generate your API module successfully, but extra configuration might be necessary in certain cases.

  5. Open a terminal and navigate to your root project folder. Then run gradlew buildService.

    Your service.xml file’s configuration is used to generate your application’s service API and service implementation classes in their respective modules. You’ve also generated other custom files (related to SQL, Hibernate, Spring, etc.), depending on your buildService {...) block’s configuration. For more information on configuration options for the Service Builder plugin, see the Service Builder Gradle Plugin reference article.

  6. Now that you’ve run Service Builder, continue copying custom classes into your implementation module. The table below highlights popular Liferay Portal 6 classes and packages and where they should be placed in your application. This table is intended to aid in the organization of your classes and configuration files; however, remember to follow the organizational methodologies that make the most sense for your application. One size does not fit all with your modules’ directory schemes.

    Plugin Package Module Package
    tasks-portlet/docroot/WEB-INF/src/com.liferay.tasks.model.impl tasks-service/src/main/java/com.liferay.tasks.model.impl
    tasks-portlet/docroot/WEB-INF/src/com.liferay.tasks.service.impl tasks-service/src/main/java/com.liferay.tasks.service.impl
    tasks-portlet/docroot/WEB-INF/src/com.liferay.tasks.service.permission tasks-service/src/main/java/com.liferay.tasks.service.permission
    tasks-portlet/docroot/WEB-INF/src/com.liferay.tasks.service.persistence.impl tasks-service/src/main/java/com.liferay.tasks.service.persistence.impl
    tasks-portlet/docroot/WEB-INF/src/com.liferay.tasks.social tasks-service/src/main/java/com.liferay.tasks.social
    tasks-portlet/docroot/WEB-INF/src/com.liferay.tasks.util tasks-service/src/main/java/com.liferay.tasks.util
    tasks-portlet/docroot/WEB-INF/src/custom-sql tasks-service/src/main/resources/META-INF/custom-sql
  7. Once you’ve copied all of your custom classes over, run gradlew buildService again to generate the remaining services.

Now that your services are generated, you’ll need to wire up your modules so they can reference each other when deployed to Liferay’s OSGi container. Blade CLI has already partially completed this task. For example, it assumes that the service implementation module depends on the service API module.

You still need to associate the client module with the api and service modules, since they were generated separately. To do this, follow the steps below:

  1. In your project’s settings.gradle file, you must add the web module with the api and service modules so it’s included in the Gradle build lifecycle:

    include "tasks-api", "tasks-service", "tasks-web"
    
  2. Add the api and service modules as dependencies in you client module:

    dependencies {
        compileOnly  project(':tasks-api')
        compileOnly  project(':tasks-service')
    }
    

Excellent! You’ve successfully generated your application’s services using Service Builder. They now reside in modules, and can be deployed to Liferay Portal CE 7.0.

Building Your Module JARs for Deployment

Now it’s time to build your modules and deploy them to your Liferay Portal instance. To build your project, run gradlew build from your project’s root directory.

Once your project successfully builds, check all of your modules’ /build/libs folders. There should be a newly generated JAR file in each, which is the file you’ll need to deploy to Liferay Portal. You can deploy each JAR by running blade deploy from each module’s root directory.

Once you’ve successfully deployed your modules, you can list them from the Gogo shell as shown below.

deploy-converted-modules.png

Figure 1: Once you’ve connected to your Liferay instance in your Gogo shell prompt, run lb to list your new converted modules.

This tutorial explained how to convert your traditional application into the modular format of a Liferay Portal CE 7.0 style applicaton. Specifically, you learned how to

  • Create a web client (*-web) module that holds your application’s portlet classes and UI.
  • Create a service implementation module (*-service) and a service API module (*-api).
  • Run Service Builder to generate code for your application’s service and API modules.
  • Wire your modules together by declaring their dependencies on each another.
  • Build your modules and deploy them to your Liferay Portal installation.

Great job!

Related Topics

Portlets

Service Builder

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