Modularity makes writing software, especially as a team, fun! Here are some benefits to modular development on DXP:

  • Liferay Portal’s runtime framework is lightweight, fast, and secure.
  • The framework uses the OSGi standard. If you have experience using OSGi with other projects, you can apply your existing knowledge to developing on DXP.
  • Modules publish services to and consume services from a service registry. Service contracts are loosely coupled from service providers and consumers, and the registry manages the contracts automatically.
  • Modules’ dependencies are managed automatically by the container, dynamically (no restart required).
  • The container manages module life cycles dynamically. Modules can be installed, started, updated, stopped, and uninstalled while Liferay Portal is running, making deployment a snap.
  • Only a module’s classes whose packages are explicitly exported are publicly visible; OSGi hides all other classes by default.
  • Modules and packages are semantically versioned and declare dependencies on specific versions of other packages. This allows two applications that depend on different versions of the same packages to each depend on their own versions of the packages.
  • Team members can develop, test, and improve modules in parallel.
  • You can use your existing developer tools and environment to develop modules.

There are many benefits to modular software development with OSGi, and we can only scratch the surface here. Once you start developing modules, you might find it hard to go back to developing any other way.

Modules

It’s time to see what module projects look like and see Liferay Portal’s modular development features in action. To keep things simple, only project code and structure are shown: you can create modules like these anytime.

These modules collectively provide a command that takes a String and uses it in a greeting. Consider it “Hello World” for modules.

API

The API module is first. It defines the contract that a provider implements and a consumer uses. Here is its structure:

  • greeting-api
    • src
      • main
        • java
          • com/liferay/docs/greeting/api
            • Greeting.java
    • bnd.bnd
    • build.gradle

Very simple, right? Beyond the Java source file, there are only two other files: a Gradle build script (though you can use any build system you want), and a configuration file called bnd.bnd. The bnd.bnd file describes and configures the module:

Bundle-Name: Greeting API
Bundle-SymbolicName: com.liferay.docs.greeting.api
Bundle-Version: 1.0.0
Export-Package: com.liferay.docs.greeting.api

The module’s name is Greeting API. Its symbolic name–a name that ensures uniqueness–is com.liferay.docs.greeting.api. Its semantic version is declared next, and its package is exported, which means it’s made available to other modules. This module’s package is just an API other modules can implement.

Finally, there’s the Java class, which in this case is an interface:

package com.liferay.docs.greeting.api;

import aQute.bnd.annotation.ProviderType;

@ProviderType
public interface Greeting {

        public void greet(String name);

}

The interface’s @ProviderType annotation tells the service registry that anything implementing the interface is a provider. The interface’s one method asks for a String and doesn’t return anything.

That’s it! As you can see, creating modules is not very different from creating other Java projects.

Provider

An interface only defines an API; to do something, it must be implemented. This is what the provider module is for. Here’s what a provider module for the Greeting API looks like:

  • greeting-impl
    • src
      • main
        • java
          • com/liferay/docs/greeting/impl
            • GreetingImpl.java
    • bnd.bnd
    • build.gradle

It has the same structure as the API module: a build script, a bnd.bnd configuration file, and an implementation class. The only differences are the file contents. The bnd.bnd file is a little different:

Bundle-Name: Greeting Impl
Bundle-SymbolicName: com.liferay.docs.greeting.impl
Bundle-Version: 1.0.0

The bundle name, symbolic name, and version are all set similarly to the API.

Finally, there’s no Export-Package declaration. A client (which is the third module you’ll create) just wants to use the API: it doesn’t care how its implementation works as long as the API returns what it’s supposed to return. The client, then, only needs to declare a dependency on the API; the service registry injects the appropriate implementation at runtime.

Pretty cool, eh?

All that’s left, then, is the class that provides the implementation:

package com.liferay.docs.greeting.impl;

import com.liferay.docs.greeting.api.Greeting;

import org.osgi.service.component.annotations.Component;

@Component(
    immediate = true,
    property = {
    },
    service = Greeting.class
)
public class GreetingImpl implements Greeting {

    @Override
    public void greet(String name) {
        System.out.println("Hello " + name + "!");
    }

}

The implementation is simple. It uses the String as a name and prints a hello message. A better implementation might be to use Liferay Portal’s API to collect all the names of all the users in the system and send each user a greeting notification, but the point here is to keep things simple. You should understand, though, that there’s nothing stopping you from replacing this implementation by deploying another module whose Greeting implementation’s @Component annotation specifies a higher service ranking property (e.g., "service.ranking:Integer=100").

This @Component annotation defines three options: immediate = true, an empty property list, and the service class that it implements. The immediate = true setting means that this module should not be lazy-loaded; the service registry loads it as soon as it’s deployed, instead of when it’s first used. Using the @Component annotation declares the class as a Declarative Services component, which is the most straightforward way to create components for OSGi modules. A component is a POJO that the runtime creates automatically when the module starts.

To compile this module, the API it’s implementing must be on the classpath. If you’re using Gradle, you’d add the greetings-api project to your dependencies { ... } block. In a Liferay Workspace module, the dependency looks like this:

compileOnly project (':modules:greeting-api')

That’s all there is to a provider module.

Consumer

The consumer or client uses the API that the API module defines and the provider module implements. DXP has many different kinds of consumer modules. Portlets are the most common consumer module type, but since they are a topic all by themselves, this example stays simple by creating an command for the Apache Felix Gogo shell. Note that consumers can, of course, consume many different APIs to provide functionality.

A consumer module has the same structure as the other module types:

  • greeting-command
    • src
      • main
        • java
          • com/liferay/docs/greeting/command
            • GreetingCommand.java
    • bnd.bnd
    • build.gradle

Again, you have a build script, a bnd.bnd file, and a Java class. This module’s bnd.bnd file is almost the same as the provider’s:

Bundle-Name: Greeting Command
Bundle-SymbolicName: com.liferay.docs.greeting.command
Bundle-Version: 1.0.0

There’s nothing new here: you declare the same things you declared for the provider.

Your Java class has a little bit more going on:

package com.liferay.docs.greeting.command;

import org.osgi.service.component.annotations.Component;
import org.osgi.service.component.annotations.Reference;

import com.liferay.docs.greeting.api.Greeting;

@Component(
    immediate = true,
    property = {
        "osgi.command.scope=greet",
        "osgi.command.function=greet"
    },
    service = Object.class
)
public class GreetingCommand {

    public void greet(String name) {
        Greeting greeting = _greeting;

        greeting.greet(name);
    }

    @Reference
    private Greeting _greeting;

}

The @Component annotation declares the same attributes, but specifies different properties and a different service. As in Java, where every class is a subclass of java.lang.Object (even though you don’t need to specify it by default), in Declarative Services, the runtime needs to know the type of class to register. Because you’re not implementing any particular type, your parent class is java.lang.Object, so you must specify that class as the service. While Java doesn’t require you to specify Object as the parent when you’re creating a class that doesn’t inherit anything, Declarative Services does.

The two properties define a command scope and a command function. All commands have a scope to define their context, as it’s common for multiple APIs to have similar functions, such as copy or delete. These properties specify you’re creating a command called greet in a scope called greet. While you get no points for imagination, this sufficiently defines the command.

Since you specified osgi.command.function=greet in the @Component annotation, your class must have a method named greet, and you do. But how does this greet method work? It obtains an instance of the Greeting OSGi service and invokes its greet method, passing in the name parameter. How is an instance of the Greeting OSGi service obtained? The GreetingCommand class declares a private service bean, _greeting of type Greeting. This is the OSGi service type that the provider module registers. The @Reference annotation tells the OSGi runtime to instantiate the service bean with a service from the service registry. The runtime binds the Greeting object of type GreetingImpl to the private field _greeting. The greet method uses the _greeting field value.

Just like the provider, the consumer needs to have the API on its classpath in order to compile, but at runtime, since you’ve declared all the dependencies appropriately, the container knows about these dependencies, and provides them automatically.

If you were to deploy these modules to a DXP instance, you’d be able to attach to the Gogo Shell and execute a command like this:

greet:greet "Captain\ Kirk"

The shell would then return your greeting:

Hello Captain Kirk!

This most basic of examples should make it clear that module-based development is easy and straightforward. The API-Provider-Consumer contract fosters loose coupling, making your software easy to manage, enhance, and support.

A Typical Liferay Application

If you look at a typical application from Liferay Portal’s source, you’ll generally find at least four modules:

  • An API module
  • A Service (provider) module
  • A Test module
  • A Web (consumer) module

This is exactly what you’ll find for some smaller applications, like the Mentions application that lets users mention other users with the @username nomenclature in comments, blogs, or other applications. Larger applications like the Documents and Media library have more modules. In the case of the Documents and Media library, there are separate modules for different document storage back-ends. In the case of the Wiki, there are separate modules for different Wiki engines.

Encapsulating capability variations as modules facilitates extensibility. If you have a document storage back-end that Liferay Portal doesn’t yet support, you can implement Liferay’s document storage API for your solution by developing a module for it and thus extend Liferay’s Documents and Media library. If there’s a Wiki dialect that you like better than what Liferay’s wiki provides, you can write a module for it and extend Liferay’s wiki.

Are you excited yet? Are you ready to start developing? Here are some resources for you to learn more.

Related Topics

Liferay IDE

Liferay Workspace

Blade CLI

Maven

Developing a Web Application

Planning a Plugin Upgrade to Liferay 7

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