To track an entity of an application with the Staging framework, you must implement the StagedModel interface in the app’s model classes. It provides the behavior contract for entities during the Staging process. For example, the Bookmarks application manages BookmarksEntrys and BookmarksFolders, and both implement the StagedModel interface. Once you’ve configured your staged models, you can create staged model data handlers, which supply information about a staged model (entity) and its referenced content to the Export/Import and Staging frameworks. See the Understanding Data Handlers tutorial for more information.

There are two ways to create staged models for your application’s entities:

  • Using Service Builder to generate the required Staging implementations (tutorial).
  • Implementing the required Staging interfaces manually (tutorial).

You can follow step-by-step procedures for creating staged models for your entities by visiting their respective tutorials.

Using Service Builder to generate your staged models is the easiest way to create staged models for your app. You define the necessary columns in your service.xml file and set the uuid attribute to true. Then you run Service Builder, which generates the required code for your new staged models.

Implementing the necessary staged model logic manually should be done if you don’t want to extend your model with special attributes only required to generate Staging logic (i.e., not needed by your business logic). In this case, you should adapt your business logic to meet the Staging framework’s needs. You’ll learn more about this later.

You’ll explore the provided staged model interfaces next.

Staged Model Interfaces

The StagedModel interface must be implemented by your app’s model classes, but this is typically done through inheritance by implementing one of the interfaces that extend the base interface:

You must implement these when you want to use certain features of the Staging framework like automatic group mapping or entity level Last Publish Date handling. So how do you choose which is right for you?

The StagedAuditedModel interface provides all the audit fields to the model that implements it. You can check the AuditedModel interface for the specific audit fields provided. The StagedAuditedModel interface is intended for models that function independent from the group concept (sometimes referred to as company models). If your model is a group model, you should not implement the StagedAuditedModel interface.

The StagedGroupedModel interface must be implemented for group models. For example, if your application requires the groupId column, your model is a group model. If your model satisfies both the StagedGroupModel and StagedAuditedModel requirements, it should implement the StagedGroupedModel. Your model should only implement the StagedAuditedModel if it doesn’t fulfill the grouped model needs, but does fulfill the audited model needs. If your model does not fulfill either the StagedAuditedModel or StagedGroupedModel requirements, you should implement the base StagedModel interface.

As an example for extending your model class, you can visit the BookmarksEntryModel class, which extends the StagedGroupedModel interface; this is done because bookmark entries are group models.

public interface BookmarksEntryModel extends BaseModel<BookmarksEntry>,
    ShardedModel, StagedGroupedModel, TrashedModel, WorkflowedModel {

Now that you have a better understanding about staged model interfaces, you’ll dive into the attributes used in Staging and why they’re important.

Important Attributes in Staging

If you’d like to generate your staged models using Service Builder, you must define the proper attributes in your project’s service.xml file. If you’d like more detail on how this is done, see the Generating Staged Models using Service Builder tutorial. You’ll learn some general information about this process next.

One of the most important attributes used by the Staging framework is the UUID (Universally Unique Identifier). This attribute must be set to true in your service.xml file for Service Builder to recognize your model as an eligible staged model. The UUID is used to differentiate entities between environments. Because the UUID always remains the same, it’s unique across multiple systems. Why is this so important?

Suppose you’re using remote staging and you create a new entity on your local staging site and publish it to your remote live site. What happens when you go back to modify the entity on your local site and want to publish those changes? Without a UUID, the Staging framework has no way to know the local and remote entities are the same. To publish entities properly, the Staging framework needs entities uniquely identified across systems to recognize the original entity on the remote site and update it. The UUID provides that.

In addition to the UUID, there are several columns that must be defined in your service.xml file for Service Builder to define your model as a staged model:

  • companyId
  • createDate
  • modifiedDate

If you want a staged grouped model, also include the groupId and lastPublishDate columns. If you want a staged audited model, include the userId and userName columns.

Next, you’ll learn how to build staged models from scratch.

Adapting Your Business Logic to Build Staged Models

What if you don’t want to extend your model with special attributes that may not be needed in your business logic? In this case, you should adapt your business logic to meet the Staging framework’s needs. Liferay provides the ModelAdapterBuilder framework, which lets you adapt your model classes to staged models.

As an example, assume you have an app that is fully developed and you want to configure it to work with Staging. Your app, however, does not require a UUID for any of its entities, and therefore, does not provide them. Instead of configuring your app to handle UUIDs just for the sake of generating staged models, you can leverage the Model Adapter Builder to build your staged models.

Another example for building staged models from scratch is for applications that use REST services to access their attributes instead of the database. Since this kind of app is developed to pull its attributes from a remote system, it would be more convenient to build your staged models yourself instead of relying on Service Builder, which is database driven.

To adapt your model classes to staged models, follow the steps outlined below:

  1. Create a Staged[Entity] interface, which extends the model specific interface (e.g., [Entity]) and the appropriate staged model interface (e.g., StagedModel). This class serves as the Staged Model Adapter.

  2. Create a Staged[Entity]Impl class that implements the Staged[Entity] interface and provides necessary logic for your entity model to be recognized as a staged model.

  3. Create a Staged[Entity]ModelAdapterBuilder class that implements ModelAdapterBuilder<[Entity], Staged[Entity]>. This class adapts the original model to the newly created Staged Model Adapter.

  4. Adapt your existing model and call one of the provided APIs to export or import the entity automatically.


Figure 1: The Staged Model Adapter class extends your entity and staged model interfaces.


Figure 2: The Model Adapter Builder gets an instance of the model and outputs a staged model.

To step through the process for leveraging the Model Adapter Builder for an existing app, visit the Creating Staged Models Manually tutorial.

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